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[2] WWF, Paris Climate Agreement. Available at: https://www.worldwildlife.org/pages/paris-climate-agreement Accessed 10 June 2020

[3] Harvard Business Review, Climate Change in 2020: Implications for Business.

[4] Arctic Program. Effects of persistent Arctic Warming continue to mount. Available at: https://arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card/Report-Card-2018 Accessed 10 June 2020

[5] Here's what vanishing sea ice in the Arctic means for you. 2018. Available at: https://www.theverge.com/2018/5/10/17339046/arctic-sea-ice-decline-albedo-effect-climate-change-global-warming Accessed 10 June 2020

[6] Carbon Brief. Tipping points. Explainer: "tipping points that could be triggered by climate change". Available at: https://www.carbonbrief.org/explainer-nine-tipping-points-that-could-be-triggered-by-climate-change Accessed 10 June 2020

[7] Arctic Report Card. Available at: https://arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card Accessed 10 June 2020

[8 ]The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service data. Available at: https://atmosphere.copernicus.eu/another-active-year-arctic-wildfires

[9] WWF. Polar Bear Information. Available at: https://wwf.ru/species/belyy-medved/belyy-medved/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[10] Molnár, P.K., Bitz, C.M., Holland, M.M. et al. Fasting season length sets temporal limits for global polar bear persistence. Nat. Clim. Chang. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0818-9 Accessed 10 June 2020

[11] Ibid

[12] National Snow&Ice Data Center. What is the Arctic? Available at: https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/arctic-meteorology/arctic.html Accessed 11 December 2020

[13] Sustainability in the Arctic regions: what, how and why? Available at: https://businessindexnorth.com/reports/?Article=71 Accessed 24 June 2020

[14] Heleniak, T. (2020). The future of the Arctic populations. Polar Geography, 1-17.

[15] Business Index North Reports. Available at: https://businessindexnorth.com/reports Accessed 24 June 2020

[16] Sustainability in the Arctic regions: what, how and why? Available at: https://businessindexnorth.com/reports/?Article=71 Accessed 24 June 2020

[17] Arctic Social Indicators. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/48 Accessed 24 June 2020

[18] Ibid

[19] Global Agenda Council on the Arctic, Guidance for Responsible Investments in the Arctic, available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Arctic_Investment_Protocol.pdf Accessed 24 June 2020

[20] Heleniak, T. (2020). Polar Peoples in the future: Projections of the Arctic Populations. Nordregio. Working paper. Available at: Available at: https://nordregio.org/publications/polar-peoples-i...Accessed 30 August 2020

[21] Rasmussen, R. O. (Ed.). (2011). Megatrends. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. Available at: http://www.nordregio.se/en/Publications/Publications-2011/Megatrends/. Accessed 24 June 2020

[22] Zamyatina, N & Goncharov, R, 2019. "Arctic urbanization: resilience in a condition of permanent instability – the case of Russian Arctic cities," Chapters, in: Resilience and Urban Disasters, chapter 7, pages 136-153, Edward Elgar Publishing.

[23] Arctic Human Development Report (2014). Available at: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:788965/FULLTEXT03.pdf

[24] Nordregio. Cities on Ice. Available at: https://nordregio.org/nordregio-magazine/issues/ar... Accessed 30 August 2020

[25] Heleniak, T. (2020). Polar Peoples in the future: Projections of the Arctic Populations. Nordregio. Working paper. Available at: Available at: https://nordregio.org/publications/polar-peoples-i...Accessed 30 August 2020

[26] The level of urbanization is calculated using urbanization levels according to common criteria (referring only to a city population with more than 5,000 inhabitants)

[27] Weber, R., Rasmussen, R. O., Zalkind, L., Karlsdottir, A., Johansen, S. T., Terräs, J., & Nilsson, K. (2017). Urbanisation and land use management in the Arctic: An investigative overview. In Northern sustainabilities: Understanding and addressing change in the circumpolar world (pp. 269-284). Springer, Cham.

[28] Laruelle, M. (2019). Indigenous Peoples, Urbanization Processes, and Interactions with Extraction Firms in Russia's Arctic. Sibirica, 18(3), 1-8.

[29] towns with over 25% population employed at a single company or group of companies belonging to the same industry.

[30] Anokhin, A, Kuznetsov, S. & Lachininskii S. (2014). A Spatial Study of Geo-Economic Risk Exposure of Russia's Arctic Mono-Towns with Commodity Export-Based Economy. Journal of Geography and Geology Archives, 6(1), 38-45

[31] Laruelle, M., & Hohmann, S. (2019). Polar Islam: Muslim Communities in Russia's Arctic Cities. Problems of Post-Communism, 1-11.

[32] Nyseth T. (2017) Arctic Urbanization: Modernity Without Cities. In: Körber LA., MacKenzie S., Westerståhl Stenport A. (eds) Arctic Environmental Modernities. Palgrave Studies in World Environmental History. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

[33] Arctic Indigenous Peoples. Arctic Center Available at: https://www.arcticcentre.org/EN/arcticregion/Arctic-Indigenous-Peoples Accessed 11 December 2020

[34] ArcticPortal. Peoples of the Arctic. Available at https://portlets.arcticportal.org/the-people Accessed 11 December 2020

[35] Gassiy, V. (2018). Indigenous communities in the Arctic change in socio-economic and environmental perspective. In Arctic Studies - A Proxy for Climate Change. IntechOpen.

[36] Laruelle, M. (2019). Indigenous Peoples, Urbanization Processes, and Interactions with Extraction Firms in Russia's Arctic. Sibirica, 18(3), 1-8.

[37] Ibid

[38] Ibid

[39] Ibib

[40] Anisimov, O. Russian Arctic Cities in the Context of Climate Change. In: Urban Sustainability in the Arctic: Visions, Contexts, and Challenges. Eds. Orttung R.W. & Laruelle M.

[41] Ibid

[42] Russia's Thawing Permafrost May Cost Economy $2.3Bln a Year. Available at: https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2019/10/18/russias-... Accessed 27 June 2020

[43] The biggest catastrophe in the Arctic. Forbes Russia, 2020. Available at: https://www.forbes.ru/obshchestvo-photogallery/402... Accessed 27 June 2020

[44] Shapovalova, d. (2020). Oil Spill in Siberia: Are We Prepared for Permafrost Thaw? AvailableAt:https://www.thearcticinstitute.org/oil-spill-siberia-prepared-permafrost-thaw/ Accessed 27 June 2020

[45] Katz, C. (2020). Urban Heat Islands Are Warming the Arctic. Available at https://eos.org/articles/urban-heat-islands-are-wa...:~:text=Characterized%20by%20raised%20temperatures%20and,cities%20than%20in%20rural%20areas./ Accessed 27 June 2020

[46] Arctic Human Development Report. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/... Accessed 27 June 2020

[47] GRP is gross domestic product (GDP) at regional level

[48] ADHR 2014.Available at: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:788965/FULLTEXT03.pdf Accessed 27 June 2020

[49] The Gross Value Added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry, or sector of an economy. The GVA at basic prices is the economic output valued at basic prices minus intermediate consumption valued at purchaser's prices. The GVA is linked to the GDP, as both are measures of economic output. The GVA is sector specific, and the GDP is the sum of the GVA from all sectors of economy (including taxes and excluding subsidies). See Nordregio, available at: https://nordregio.org/maps/gross-value-added-in-the-arctic/ Accessed 27 June 2020

[50] Nordregio. Gross Value Added in the Arctic. Available at: https://nordregio.org/maps/gross-value-added-in-the-arctic/ Accessed June 27 2020

[51] Nordregio. Gross Value Added in the Arctic. Available at: https://nordregio.org/maps/gross-value-added-in-the-arctic/ Accessed June 27 2020

[52] Northern Sea Route: Development Prospects and Uncertainties. Available at: https://www.pwc.dk/da/publikationer/2020/pwc-severnyy-morskoy-put-perspektivy-i-neopredelennosti-razvitiya-en.pdf Accessed 27 June 2020

[53] Middleton (2019). In the name of the Arctic. What are the motives of the Arctic Shipping Corporate Pledge signees? Available at: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/name-arctic Accessed 27 June 2020

[54] Calcasieu Pass LNG Export Facility, Louisiana, Project information. Available at: https://www.nsenergybusiness.com/projects/calcasieu-pass-lng-facility-louisiana/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[55] Russia's giant Shtokman gas field project put on indefinite hold due to cost overruns and failed agreements. Available at: https://bellona.org/news/fossil-fuels/gas/2012-08-russias-giant-shtokman-gas-field-project-put-on-indefinite-hold-over-cost-overruns-and-failed-agreements Accessed 10 August 2020

[56] How would offshore oil and gas drilling in the Arctic impact wildlife? Available at: https://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/how-would-offshore-oil-and-gas-drilling-in-the-arctic-impact-wildlife Accessed 10 August 2020

[57]High court to hear Arctic oil complaint. Available at: https://www.newsinenglish.no/2020/04/20/high-court-to-hear-arctic-oil-complaint/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[58] EU Bank Launches Ambitious New Climate Strategy and Energy Lending Policy. Available at: https://www.eib.org/en/press/all/2019-313-eu-bank-launches-ambitious-new-climate-strategy-and-energy-lending-policy Accessed 10 August 2020

[59] Lanteigne, M. Hello Zero: Where Does Arctic Energy Go From Here? Available at: https://overthecircle.com/2020/04/26/hello-zero-where-does-arctic-energy-go-from-here/?fbclid=IwAR0dhaXttWRTpeTZ39-b1WekxXFUhyDIaGb9nXWLmWQwQ2nFaP3TdmWCJDk Accessed 27 June 2020

[60] Katya Golubkova, K & Stolyarov, G. (2019). Rosatom sees Northern Sea Route costs at 735 billion roubles, Russian budget to provide a third. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-russia-rosatom-arctic/rosatom-sees-northern-sea-route-costs-at-735-billion-roubles-russian-budget-to-provide-a-third-idUSKCN1TP1LB Accessed 27 June 2020

[61] Humpert, M. (2020). IMO Inches Forward With Ban on Heavy Fuel Oil in Arctic. Available at: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/imo-inches-forward-ban-heavy-fuel-oil-arctic Accessed 27 June 2020

[62] Improving Connectivity in the Arctic, Final report: Rovaniemi Ministerial meeting 2019. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/bitstream/handle/11374/2369/SAOXFI205_2019_RUKA_06_TFICA_Report-3rd-Draft%206%20May.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Accessed 27 June 2020

[63]Nordic Council of Ministers. Data Centres Opportunities in the Nordics.Available at:

https://www.businessfinland.fi/contentassets/ac365fc5fb37404493d5c75f6592265e/data-centre-opportunities-in-the-nordics.pdf Accessed 27 June 2020

[64] Middleton, A. & Rønning, B. (2020). Data centers as critical infrastructure in the Arctic. https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/data-centers-critical-infrastructure-arctic Accessed 27 June 2020

[65] Birkeland, R. (2014). An overview of existing and future satellite systems for arctic communication. Proceedings of ESA Small Satellites Systems and Services 2014.

[66] Russia to build Arctic satellite network. Available at: http://www.russianspaceweb.com/arktika.html Accessed 27 November 2020

[67] SCMP. China launches its first fully owned overseas satellite ground station near Nortth Pole. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/2055224/china-launches-its-first-fully-owned-overseas-satellite Accessed 27 November 2020

[68] Artcic.RU. Chinese micro satellite starts Arctic monitoring. Available at: https://arctic.ru/international/20200617/947975.html Accessed 27 November 2020

[69] Space Norway to provide satellite based Arctic broadband. Available at: https://spacenorway.no/home/ Accessed 27 November 2020

[70] Asmus, P. (2019). The Circumpolar Arctic Leads the World in Microgrid Innovation. Available at: https://guidehouseinsights.com/news-and-views/the-circumpolar-arctic-leads-the-world-in-microgrid-innovation Accessed 27 June 2020

[71] Arruda, G. M. (2015). Arctic governance regime: the last frontier for hydrocarbons exploitation. International Journal of Law and Management.

[72] Radosavljevic, B., Lantuit, H., Pollard, W., Overduin, P., Couture, N., Sachs, T., ... & Fritz, M. (2016). Erosion and flooding—threats to coastal infrastructure in the Arctic: a case study from Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada. Estuaries and Coasts, 39(4), 900-915.

[73] Business Index North (2019). Available at: https://businessindexnorth.com/sites/b/businessindexnorth.com/files/business_index_north_2019_people_business_and_development_conditions.pdf Accessed 27 June 2020

[74] Pilyasov, A. N. (2016). Russia's Arctic frontier: Paradoxes of development. Regional Research of Russia, 6(3), 227-239.

[75] Climete-Altering Technologies and the Arctic. Available at: https://www.c2g2.net/arctic/ Accessed 17 August 2020

[76] Space Technologies for a Smart and Resilient Arctic. Available at: https://www.wilsoncenter.org/event/space-technolog... Accessed 17 August 2020

[77] Sigma-geo company's materials, from Arctic-2020 conference held in Moscow (February, 2020). Official site, available at: https://sigma-geo.ru Accessed 17 August 2020

[78] Penoplex company's materials from Arctic-2020 conference held in Moscow (February, 2020). Official site, available at: https://www.penoplex.ru Accessed 17 August 2020

[79] Arctic projects by Harvard. Available at:https://www.belfercenter.org/arctic-initiative/overview/arctic-innovators-arctic-initiative Accessed 18 July 2020

[80] Startups from this region. Available at: https://arctic15.com/helsinki-2019/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[81] IT in Arctica: Russian outlook. Available at: http://csef.ru/media/articles/8972/11439.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[82] Marine technologies for Arctic. Available at: http://arteco.vtt.fi/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[83] PMEL: Marine technologies for Arctic. Available at:https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/itae/technologies Accessed 18 July 2020

[84] Russian marine technologies for Arctic. Available at:https://arcticmarinetechnologies.ru/tech/%d0%b0%d1%80%d0%ba%d1%82%d0%b8%d1%87%d0%b5%d1%81%d0%ba%d0%b8%d0%b9-%d0%bb%d0%b5%d0%b4%d0%be%d0%b2%d1%8b%d0%b9-%d1%81%d0%b5%d0%bd%d1%81%d0%be%d1%80/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[85] Minpromtorg's catalogue of Russian goods for Arctic. Available at:https://minpromtorg.gov.ru/press-centre/news/#!minpromtorg_rossii_podgotovil_katalog_vysokotehnologichnoy_produkcii_dlya_nuzhd_arktiki Accessed 18 July 2020

[86] Unique Russian robotic vehicle for Arctic. Available at:www.intehros.ru Accessed 18 July 2020

[87] Russian systems of ensure engine ignition. Available at:https://titanps.ru/catalog/titan/ssgzd/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[88] Russian technologies for environmental monitoring of Arctic sea. Available at:https://marine-rc.ru/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[89] Penoplex (Available at:https://www.penoplex.ru Accessed 18 July 2020

[90] AWtech. Available at:https://www.awtec.ru Accessed 18 July 2020

[91] Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress, available at: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41153.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[92] Studin (2020). How a new Arctic League could save the post-coronavirus world. Available at: https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/opinion/article/3083605/how-new-arctic-league-can-save-post-coronavirus-world Accessed 18 July 2020

[93] Ekaterina Klimenko, The Geopolitics of a Changing Arctic (2019). Available at: https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2019-12/sipribp1912_geopolitics_in_the_arctic.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[94] See e.g. Gerhardt, H. et al., 'Contested sovereignty in a changing Arctic', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 100, no. (2010), pp. 992–1002)

[95] Lassi Heininen, Karen Everett, Barbora Padrtova, and Anni Reissell, Arctic Policies and Strategies – Analysis, Syntesis and Trends (2020) DOI: 10.22022/AFI/11-2019.16175

[96] The Changing Shape of Arctic Security, NATO Review. Available at: https://www.nato.int/docu/review/articles/2019/06/28/the-changing-shape-of-arctic-security/index.html Accessed 18 July 2020

[97] CBC, Russian Arctic Exercise Draws Awe and Concerns, (2020). Available at: https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/russian-arctic-training-1.5563691

[98] The Guardian, Russia Begins its Largest Ever Military Exercise with 300 000 soldiers (2018). Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/11/russia-largest-ever-military-exercise-300000-soldiers-china Accessed 18 July 2020

[99] Russia Strengthens its Presence in the Arctic (2020). Available at: https://www.golos-ameriki.ru/a/russia-arctic-military-/5484903.html Accessed 18 July 2020

[100] M. Pompeo's Speech, Looking North: Sharpening America's Arctic Focus. Available at: https://www.state.gov/looking-north-sharpening-americas-arctic-focus/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[101 ]Ibid

[102] Memorandum on Safeguarding US National Interests in the Arctic and the Antarctic regions (2020). Available at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/memorandum-safeguarding-u-s-national-interests-arctic-antarctic-regions/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[103] The Guardian, Trump Orders Fleet of Icebreakers and Bases in Push for Polar Resources, (2020). Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/09/trump-icebreakers-bases-arctic-antarctic-polar?CMP=share_btn_tw Accessed 18 July 2020

[104] The Diplomat, China, Russia and Arctic Geopolitics (2020). Available at: https://thediplomat.com/2020/03/china-russia-and-arctic-geopolitics/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[105] M. Pompeo's Speech, Looking North: Sharpening America's Arctic Focus. Available at: https://www.state.gov/looking-north-sharpening-americas-arctic-focus/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[106] Illona Allan, Arctic Narratives and Political Values: Arctic States, China and NATO (2020)

[107] United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), full text. Available at: https://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[108] EU and Arctic Partners Enter Historic Agreement. Available at:https://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/content/eu-and-arctic-partners-enter-historic-agreement-prevent-unregulated-fishing-high-seas-%E2%80%93_en Accessed 18 July 2020

[109] Strategy Business, Is the Arctic the Next Emerging Market? (2013), Available at: https://www.strategy-business.com/article/00205?gko=09752 Accessed 18 July 2020

[110] The Arctic Economic Council is an independent organization aimed at facilitating Arctic business-to-business activities. The AEC is responsible for economic development of the region. The AEC was created by the Arctic Council in 2013-2015. Official site: https://arcticeconomiccouncil.com/about/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[111] Business Finance in the Arctic (2018), Available at: https://nordregio.org/research/business-financing-in-the-arctic/ Accessed 18 July 2020

[112] Business Finance in the Arctic (2018), Available at: https://nordregio.org/research/business-financing-in-the-arctic/ Accessed 18 July 2020Arctic Business Analysis. Enterpreneurship and Innovation (2018), ISBN 978-92-893-5335-9 (PDF). Available at: https://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1175621/FULLTEXT01.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[113]Arctic Business Analysis. Enterpreneurship and Innovation (2018), ISBN 978-92-893-5335-9 (PDF). Available at: https://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1175621/FULLTEXT01.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[114] Nordic Council of Ministers. Arctic Business Analysis. Bioeconomy. Available at: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1175656/FULLTEXT01.pdf Accessed 18 July 2020

[115] Ibid

[116]* Calculated based on data from Arctic Human Development Report. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/51

Please note, that the latest data on global Arctic GRP (GDP) are available for 2010-2012 years.

[117]* Calculated based on data from Nordregio. The population of the Arctic is 4.5 -10 mn people depending on the definition of the Arctic used, so Dark Ages scenario describes the situation when the Arctic population could decline by up to 1.8-4 mn people.

[118]* Calculated based on data from Arctic Human Development Report. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/51 Accessed 29 October 2020

Please note, that the latest data on global Arctic GRP (GDP) are available for 2010-2012 years.

[119]* The Arctic population is 4.5-10 mn, depending on how to count. The Romanticism scenario predicts the possibility of the situation when the Arctic population is below 1-2 mn people.

Calculated based on data from Nordregio

[120]*** Calculated based on data from Arctic Human Development Report. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/51 Accessed 29 October 2020

Please note, that the latest data on global Arctic GRP (GDP) are available for 2010-2012 years.

[121] The profiles were inspired by World Energy Trilemma Index.

World Energy Council, World Energy Trilemma Index. Available at: https://www.worldenergy.org/transition-toolkit/world-energy-trilemma-index Accessed 29 October 2020

[122] The 3BL was proposed by John Elkington in 1994. John Elkington, (1997). Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of Twenty-First Century Business. Capstone, Oxford

Triple Bottom Line, The Economist (2009). Available at: https://www.economist.com/news/2009/11/17/triple-bottom-line Accessed 30 June 2020

[123] Angela Wilkinson, Roalnd Kupers. 2013. Living in the Futures. Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2013/05/living-in-the-futures Accessed 29 October 2020

[124] Rafael Ramirez, Angela Wilkinson. 2016. Strategic Reframing: The Oxford Scenario Planning Approach, Print ISBN-13: 9780198745693

[125] Ibid

[126] How Russia's Icebreakers Came to Dominate the Frozen Sea, available at::https://www.rferl.org/a/the-story-of-russian-icebreaker-ships/30363257.html Accessed 10 June 2020

[127] Sustaining Russia's Arctic Cities: Resource Politics, Migration and Climate Change. Ed. Robert W. Orttung. New York: Berghahn Books, 2017. 89, 254 pp.

[128] Memorandum on Safeguarding US National Interests in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions", June 9th, 2020. available at:https://www.whitehouse.gov/presidential-actions/memorandum-safeguarding-u-s-national-interests-arctic-antarctic-regions/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[129] Trump Orders Fleet of Icebreakers and New Bases in Push for Polar Resources, available at::https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jun/09/trump-icebreakers-bases-arctic-antarctic-polar Accessed 10 June 2020

[130] China Reveals Details of Newly Designed Heavy Icebreaker, available at:: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/china-reveals-details-newly-designed-heavy-icebreaker Accessed 10 June 2020

[131] Sanna Kopra, China and its Arctic Trajectories: The Arctic Institute's China Series 2020. Available at: https://www.thearcticinstitute.org/china-arctic-trajectories-the-arctic-institute-china-series-2020/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[132] Telegram Channel "Captain Arktika". Official site, available at: https://t.me/caparctic Accessed 10 June 2020

[133] Rosatom, State Atomic Energy Corporation, The Nuclear Icebreaker Fleet. Available at: https://rosatom.ru/en/rosatom-group/the-nuclear-icebreaker-fleet/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[134] Plan for infrastructure development of the Northern Sea Route, full text. Available at: http://government.ru/docs/38714/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[135] Rosatom, State Atomic Energy Corporation, The Nuclear Icebreaker Fleet. Available at: https://rosatom.ru/en/rosatom-group/the-nuclear-icebreaker-fleet/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[136]Atomic Expert. Ice Leadership. Available at:http://atomicexpert.com/ice_leadership Accessed 10 June 2020

[137] Vygon Consulting. 2019. Газохимия России. Часть 1. Метанол: пока только планы. Available at: https://vygon.consulting/products/issue-1544/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[138] Methanex Corporation. Methanol as a Marine Fuel. Available at: https://www.methanex.com/about-methanol/methanol-marine-fuel Accessed 25 June 2020

[139] The time to act for a sustainable maritime future is now. https://www.wartsila.com/twentyfour7/people/the-time-to-act-for-a-sustainable-maritime-future-is-now Accessed 25 June 2020

[140] PAME (2019). Alternative fuels in the Arctic. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/bitstream/handle/11374/2422/Alternative%20fuels%20in%20the%20Arctic%20%28Norway-WWF%29%20March%202019_final.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Accessed 25 June 2020

[141] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, Northern Sea Route: History, Regions, Projects, Fleet and Fuel Support Services (Report), 2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol3.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[142] The second BRI Forum was held in Beijing in 2019, the official statement of the Russian President is available at URL: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/60393 Accessed 10 June 2020

[143] MOL and China COSCO Shipping's second LNG carrier for Yamal LNG project named LNG MERAKю Available at: https://portnews.ru/news/289596/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[144] "The Northern Sea Route received its share of bad publicity in 2019 when it became a target of big logistics companies and brands that publicly declared their intentions not to use it", writes A.Middleton. URL: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/northern-sea-route-speculations-reality-2035 Accessed 10 June 2020

[145]MAERSK Container Ship Embarks on Historic Arctic Transit. Available at: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/maersk-container-ship-embarks-historic-arctic-transit Accessed 10 June 2020

[146]MAESRK Eye Northern Sea Route Collaboration with Atomflot. Available at: https://www.offshore-energy.biz/maersk-eyes-northern-sea-route-collaboration-with-atomflot/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[147] Postponed from 2022 to July 1, 2024 (except for search and rescue vessels, the vessels designed to prevent and eliminate oil spills). The draft decision also provided a five-year delay until July 1, 2029 for vessels with constructive protection of fuel tanks in accordance with the relevant requirements of MARPOL and the Polar Code, URL: https://arctic.ru/ecology/20200225/909865.html Accessed 10 June 2020

Polar code, full text available at URL: http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/polar/Pages/default.aspx Accessed 10 June 2020

[148] World LNG Market. Available at: https://www.dw.com/ru/мировой-рынок-сжиженного-газа-проснувшийся-гигант/a-47735120 Accessed 10 June 2020

[149] Eric Yep, Global LNG market to decelerate sharply in 2020 amid supply and demand cuts. Available at: https://www.spglobal.com/platts/en/market-insights/latest-news/natural-gas/060920-global-lng-market-to-decelerate-sharply-in-2020-amid-supply-and-demand-cuts Accessed 10 June 2020

[150] Ibid

[151] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, Northern Sea Route: History, Regions, Projects, Fleet and Fuel Support Services (Report), 2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol3.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[152] Personal Interview, field research, March 2020.

[153] Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) Reports, available at: https://www.pame.is/projects/arctic-marine-shipping/older-projects/310-pame-reports Accessed 10 June 2020

[154] Novatek, official site. Available at: http://www.novatek.ru/en/about/general/history/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[155] Forbes Russia, 200 Biggest Russian Private Companies, Novate. Available at: https://www.forbes.ru/profile/244806-novatek Accessed 10 June 2020

[156] Novatek, official site. Available at: http://www.novatek.ru/en/about/general/history/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[157] Novatek, Yamal LNG Project, official site. Available at: http://www.novatek.ru/ru/business/yamal-lng/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[158] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, The Activities of Large Oil&Gas Companies in the Russian Arctic (Report).2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol2.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[159] Ibid

[160] Yamal LNG Project, official site. Available at: http://www.novatek.ru/ru/business/yamal-lng/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[161]Construction of an LNG Plant on the Yamal Peninsula. Available at: https://minenergo.gov.ru/node/7447 Accessed 10 June 2020

[162] А. Spirin, D. Chadin, A. Smirnov. Year-round Navigation in Sabetta (2015). УДК 656.614/656.02. Available at: http://ibrae.ac.ru/docs/3(19)/088_095_Arktica_3(19)_09_2015.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[163] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, The Activities of Large Oil & Gas Companies in the Russian Arctic (Report).2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol2.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[164] Novatek's Investment Decision on Arctic LNG 2. Available at: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/4082101 Accessed 10 June 2020

[165] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, Northern Sea Route: History, Regions, Projects, Fleet and Fuel Support Services (Report), 2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol3.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[166] Ibid

[167] Ibid

[168] Arctic LNG-2 gains 10 more LNG tankers. Available at: https://oilcapital.ru/news/transport/06-07-2020/arktik-spg-2-poluchit-esche-10-gazovozov Accessed 10 June 2020

[169] Telegram Channel "LNG channel". Available at: https://t.me/lngchannel Accessed 10 June 2020

[170] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, The Activities of Large Oil&Gas Companies in the Russian Arctic (Report).2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol2.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[171] NOVATEK signed agreement for development of the Far East and the Government of Kamchatka territory. Available at: https://neftegaz.ru/en/news/russia/407051-novatek-signed-agreement-for-development-of-the-far-east-and-the-government-of-kamchatka-territory/ Accessed 10 June 2020

[172] SKOLKOVO Energy Center, The Activities of Large Oil&Gas Companies in the Russian Arctic (Report).2020. Available at: https://energy.skolkovo.ru/downloads/documents/SEneC/Research/SKOLKOVO_EneC_RU_Arctic_Vol2.pdf Accessed 10 June 2020

[173] Telegram channel "Captian Arktika". Available at: https://t.me/caparctic Accessed 10 June 2020

[174] New Russian Arctic Development Strategy up to 2035 was adopted in October. The full text Available at: http://kremlin.ru/acts/news/64274 Accessed 10 June 2020

[175] Telegram channel "Captian Arktika". Available at: https://t.me/caparctic Accessed 10 June 2020

[176] Telegram Channel "LNG channel". Available at: https://t.me/lngchannel Accessed 10 June 2020

[177] Ibid

[178] Fakta om Bodo. Available at: https://bodo.kommune.no/om-bodo/category877.html Accessed 25 June 2020

[179] Nordregio (2018). The compact city of the north – functions, challenges and planning strategies. http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1272474/FULLTEXT02.pdf Accessed 25 June 2020

[180] Nikel, D. (2019). Norway's Bodø Named A European Capital Of Culture For 2024. https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidnikel/2019/09/25/bod-norways-european-capital-of-culture-for-2024/#47274c9f3caa Accessed 25 June 2020

[181] Khokhlova V., 2019. Arctic Present: the case of Teriberka.Available at: https://scenariojournal.com/article/arctic-present/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[182] Cities of the Kola Peninsula: Teriberka. Available at: https://www.kolatravel.com/teriberka.htm Accessed 25 June 2020

[183] "Closed city" is the territory where travel and/or residency restrictions are applied so that specific authorization is required due to the special security regulations.

[184] Khokhlova V., 2019. Arctic Present: the case of Teriberka.Available at: https://scenariojournal.com/article/arctic-present/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[185] Government of the Murmansk Region, official information. Available at: https://gov-murman.ru/region/omsu/teriberka/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[186] Shtokman ushel na dno, (2012). Available at: https://neftegaz.ru/analisis/projects/329027-shtokman-ushel-na-dno/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[187] ZIRCON's research materials, available at: https://zapovednik.space/material/teriberka Accessed 25 June 2020

[188] Ibid

[189] The film won numerous awards, and was nominated for an Oscar. More information available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leviathan_(2014_film) Accessed 25 June 2020

[190] Tourist flow increased by 8% in 2018, Available at: https://tourism.interfax.ru/ru/news/articles/48765/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[191] Recordnoe chislo turistov posetilo Teriberky, Available at: https://www.severreal.org/a/30362789.html Accessed 25 June 2020

[192] Teriberka Festival, official site, available at: http://teriberkafest.ru Accessed 25 June 2020

[193] ZIRCON's research materials, available at: https://zapovednik.space/material/teriberka Accessed 25 June 2020

[194] Ibid

[195] Yudkov. S (2020) Teriberku vozmut pod zazhitu. Availale at: https://www.mvestnik.ru/eco/teriberku-vozmut-pod-zawitu/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[196] Kelly, C. (2019). Fibre to the freezer – Canada proposes new subsea cable to boost Arctic connectivity. Available at: https://www.totaltele.com/503715/Fibre-to-the-freezer-Canada-proposes-new-subsea-cable-to-boost-Arctic-connectivity Accessed 25 June 2020

[197] China Seeks Partners for Arctic Rollout. Available at: https://www.lightreading.com/asia-pacific/cinia-seeks-partners-for-arctic-rollout/d/d-id/755149 Accessed 1 December 2020

[198] Middleton, A. & Rønning, B. (2020). Arctic subsea cables: Knowns and unknowns. Available at: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/arctic-subsea-cables-knowns-and-unknowns Accessed 1 December 2020

[199] EALLU Cookbook. 2018. Available at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/2169 Accessed 25 June 2020

[200] Winter Harvest Food Culture 2020. Available at: https://www.cookbookfair.com/index.php/gourmand-awards Accessed 25 June 2020

[201]Sweden's Arctic Strategy: an overview. Available at: https://www.thearcticinstitute.org/sweden-arctic-strategy-overview/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[202]Learn More About Sweden's Mining Industry. Abailable at: https://www.miningforgenerations.com/learn-more-about-swedens-mining-industry/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[203]Sweden – Case Study 2. Kiruna. Available at: https://acore-project.eu/case-studies/sweden-case-study-2-kiruna/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[204] Arctic Resilience report (2016). Available at: https://mediamanager.sei.org/documents/Publications/ArcticResilienceReport-2016.pdf Accessed 25 June 2020

[205] LKAB Urban transformation. Available at: https://www.lkab.com/en/about-lkab/from-mine-to-port/urban-transformation/ Accessed 25 June 2020

[206] Bye (2020). Conflict Between LKAB and Kiruna Municipality, Mining Company Must Compensate for Population Decline. Available at: https://www.highnorthnews.com/en/conflict-between-lkab-and-kiruna-municipality-mining-company-must-compensate-population-declineAccessed 25 June 2020

[207]Responsible Resource Development Working Group, Arctic Economic Council. Mineral Development in the Arctic. Report. Available at: https://arcticeconomiccouncil.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/FINAL-Mineral-Development-in-the-Arctic.pdf Accessed 1 December 2020

[208]TASS. Why Did the Airships disappear? Available at: https://tass.ru/tech/6821300 Accessed 10 August 2020

A Few Words About Airships. Available at: https://habr.com/ru/post/414971/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[209] Personal Interview conducted during the field research in March, 2020.

[210] Wikipedia, Airships. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airship Accessed 10 August 2020

[211] Lokheed Martin, Revolutionizing Remote Transport. Official site, available at: https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/products/hybrid-airship.html Accessed 10 August 2020

[212] Dolgoprudnenskoye Automation Design Bureau (DKBA). Official site, available at: https://dkba.ru Accessed 10 August 2020

[213] Dr. Barry E. Prentice, A Short History of Airship in the Arctic (2013). Available at: https://isopolar.com/a-short-history-of-airships-in-the-arctic/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[214] A Short History of Airships in the Arctic. Available at: https://isopolar.com/a-short-history-of-airships-in-the-arctic/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[215] Ibid

[216] Airship to the Arctic (2019). Available at: https://www.cemi.ca/airships-to-the-arctic/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[217] Straightline Aviation. Official site, available at: https://www.straightlineaviation.com Accessed 10 August 2020

[218] Greg Klein, Airships to the Arctic? Available at: http://resourceclips.com/2016/03/31/airships-to-the-arctic/ Accessed 10 August 2020

Ryan Cooper, The Return of Airships (2019). Available at: https://theweek.com/articles/824018/return-airship Accessed 10 August 2020

[219] A hybrid airship is a powered aircraft that obtains some of its lift as a lighter-than-air (LTA) airship and some from aerodynamic lift as a heavier-than-air aerodyne. Source: Wikipedia.

[220] Airships to the Arctic? Available at: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:un0d_5F9pBMJ:resourceclips.com/2016/03/31/airships-to-the-arctic/+&cd=1&hl=ru&ct=clnk&gl=ru&client=safari Accessed 10 August 2020

[221] OceanSky. Official site, available at: https://www.oceanskycruises.com Accessed 10 August 2020

[222] Hope Floats: How Dirigibles Might Allow Travelers To Venture Where They Never Have Before (2020). Available at: https://robbreport.com/motors/aviation/a-new-age-of-airship-travel-could-return-thanks-to-one-mans-obsession-2887683/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[223] Diversifying European Arctic Economies, Background Paper (drafted by the Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland for the 'Diversifying European Arctic Economies' workshop, a part of the EU-European Arctic Dialogue Seminar, Brussels, 21 November 2017). Available at: https://www.arcticcentre.org/loader.aspx?id=5112c931-05ad-4fcc-a08d-e9aacc25ddf4 Accessed 10 August 2020

[224] What Makes Creative Business Successful. Available at: https://news.itmo.ru/en/startups_and_business/initiative/news/7501/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[225] Arctic Business Analysis.Creative and Cultural Industries .Nordic Council of Ministers (2018). Available at: http://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1175681/FULLTEXT01.pdf Accessed 10 August 2020

[226] Ibid

[227]The Race above the Arctic Citcle. Available at: https://netstorage.lequipe.fr/ASO/cycling_arn/arn19-key-figures.pdf Accessed 10 August 2020

[228] GoArctic. Three art residencies were established in Karelia. Available at: https://goarctic.ru/news/v-karelii-sozdany-tri-art-rezidentsii/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[229] The Largest Diamond Producer Extracts Jewelry and Legends from Permafrost. Available at: https://news.ykt.ru/article/56748 Accessed 10 August 2020

[230] Ibid

[231] "Saybm" Received "The Far East Star " Diploma. Available at: https://www.yktimes.ru/новости/seybiem-poluchila-diplom-premii-zvezda-dalnego-vostoka/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[232] Saybm. Official site. Available at: http://saybm.com Accessed 10 August 2020

[233] The Yakut company "Saybm" will produce products under the brand "Made in the TOP SPV Far East". Available at: https://ysia.ru/yakutskaya-kompaniya-sejbiem-budet-vypuskat-izdeliya-pod-brendom-sdelano-v-tor-spv-dalnij-vostok/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[234] British Higher School of Art and Design and Saybm announce jewelry accelerator start in Yakutia. Available at: https://u.university/blog/190230/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[235] Saybm and the British Higher School of Design will hold a jewelry accelerator in Yakutia. Available at: https://minvr.gov.ru/press-center/news/26136/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[236]British Higher School of Art and Design and Saybm announce jewelry accelerator start in Yakutia. Available at: https://britishdesign.ru/about/news/190137/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[237] "Polyarnie Zori – the City of Light" project: completion of the first stage. Available at: https://intiled.ru/en/news/zori Accessed 10 August 2020

[238] The project of creating a lighting design concept for Polyarnie Zori is planned to be implemented until 2022. Available at: https://gov-murman.ru/info/news/318071/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[239] "Polyarnie Zori – the City of Light" project: completion of the first stage. Available at: https://intiled.ru/en/news/zori Accessed 10 August 2020

[240] The project of creating a lighting design concept for Polyarnie Zori is planned to be implemented until 2022. Available at: https://gov-murman.ru/info/news/318071/ Accessed 10 August 2020

[241] The world's first festival of light beyond the Arctic Circle. Available at: https://ntinews.ru/news/regiony/pervyy-v-mire-festival-sveta-za-polyarnym-krugom-proshel-v-polyarnykh-zoryakh.html Accessed 10 August 2020

[242] Light Festival near Murmansk. Available at: https://tass.ru/obschestvo/7399231 Accessed 10 August 2020

[243] Ibid